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The editor's essay broaches, in a very convincing way, the links between Italian begging, vagrancy and fraud with the Spanish picaresque novel. In this essay he deals with historical sources, most of which will re-echo in the Spanish picaresque novel. Many of Luis Vives's concerns he is quoted relevantly are a lively attack on mendicancy and poverty of the era of the Lazarillo and its social effects.

Louis Imperiale focuses on how Delicado and Pietro Aretino utilize linguistic and literary sources used to describe Rome and generally literary and dramatic space. Delicado tries to describe linguistic effects as they came out of the characters. Delicado's thrust is anti-academic and leans toward mimetic duplication in its descriptions.

Aretino has complicated effects with prose and drama. In one of the best essays of the collection, Giulio Massano returns to one of the oldest literary questions -the Italian influence on the origin of the Spanish picaresque novel.


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Massano, with a sure hand, delineates numerous intertextual possibilities, several of which have been mentioned previously Boccaccio, Bandello but adds to this an interesting new possibility, the work of Francesco Tromba. Massano is sure that these works left their traces on the picaresque novels as have certain literary figures. He also reviews italianate novelle interpolated into Spanish picaresque novels.

Massano's essay is tightly woven and strongly documented, and represents another contribution to the subject. Augustus Mastri works perceptively with the Boccaccio-Piccolomini-Fernando Rojas triangle of young lovers and love. The essay analyzes the work of each author in the light of the topos of young, tragic loves. Cervantes and Pirandello are the focus of the closing piece in the volume. An intelligent essay by Giacomo Striuli returns to the subject treated some years ago by Wilma Newberry The subject is itself extremely complex and the essay is intelligent, well-thought out.

Given the immensity of the task, Striuli's essay represents the tip of the iceberg that is the Cervantes-Pirandello question. Written in a clean, impeccable Italian, it deservedly serves as the closing essay. The volume is a welcome one, and merely serves to remind us about the extent of Italy-Hispanic relations. This volume should also convince new and younger scholars that the literary and cultural destinies of these two great nations are profoundly linked, and new relationships are still to be discovered and studied witness Aste's essay.

The only criticism, aside from minor disagreements that do not in any way reflect on the integrity of the essays themselves, must deal with presentation. I do not know who is responsible for these, the individual authors or the editor or the publisher. These are a distraction to the reading of these interesting essays, but their strength saves the volume.

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. The application of psychological theories to literary creation has sported a black eye ever since Freud and his students first took on the classics. With the notable exception of Frances Wyers, Unamuno's psychologically-oriented critics have fared even worse. Now Gayana Jurkevich, basing her work on an application of Jungian and post-Jungian analytical principles to six of Unamuno's novels and samples of his expository prose, offers an explanation of the mechanisms behind Unamuno's obsessive motifs and inabilities to produce either fully individuated male personalities or undistorted male responses to females.

Jurkevich's contention is that Unamuno's male personalities show an inability to internalize a female image anima archetype freed of the Mother fixation and to use this internalized image as a bridge between the feminine in the self and the feminine in other human beings. While the classic case is Augusto's castration by the Mother image in Niebla , the textbook example of the mechanism is provided by Paz en la Guerra , where the text splits the psyche into the hopelessly unindividuated Ignacio and the never integrated Pachico, who try to achieve synthesis with their opposite poles.

Nada menos que todo un hombre teaches the tragic consequences when Alejandro, motivated by plebeian strivings, seeks to deny the feminine within him. Using convincing documentation of would-be-psychologist Unamuno's apprenticeship at the knee of the same turn-of-the-century romantic theorists that nurtured Jung, plus narratological glimpses into the ways that Unamuno thrusts his own authorial voice into the conflict-ridden discourse of both his narrators and characters, Jurkevich demonstrates how Unamuno's entire opus is a succession of attempts compellingly dramatized metafictional at tempts at liberating and unifying his personality via the word.

The initial chapter, which illustrates Unamuno's rhetoric outside the purview of fiction, sometimes labors to pick up the Jungian thrust of the Introduction, while the second chapter applies the first two sections' concepts somewhat diffusely to Unamuno's sprawling first novel. Thereafter the study deftly picks its way among evolving forms congruent to shifting inner conflicts. Each succeeding chapter significantly expands the preceding exposition.

A few of the arguments are driven rather hard by the author's own rhetoric and some of the translations meddle a bit -but not self-servingly- with Unamuno's style. These are few objections, indeed, to such convincingly-written and much-needed insights into this dimension of Unamuno's psychic and literary processes. The point is not new of course, since, as Franz himself makes clear, Milton is alluded to in Unamuno's novel and others had already compared the two works.

His study thus concentrates on the psychological make-up of the two characters as well as some of the philosophical consequences one can infer from reading them together. He is careful to insist, for example, that the theological perspective of the earlier writer becomes an existential one in the later text, and that the similarity between the two stems from an affinity of perspective.

Unamuno did not copy Milton; rather, his interest in the theme of envy was nurtured by his meditations on the English author's conception of Satan. There are grounds here for another study. Franz is aware that the analysis of sources does not reveal everything about a literary work. Ohio State University. This is not a book to be read at one or two sittings. Rather, it will be used for consultation as needed by anyone puzzled over a single image or an entire verse in Pessoa's prize-winning long poem Mensagem.

Indeed, its principal value lies exactly in the intelligent way it tackles all the verses -often fine by fine, sometimes word by word. Hence numbers of fines in given poems, as he sees it, reflect and orchestrate the various realms and different discourses that feature the same numbers -threes, sevens, twelves, etc. Of course, this sort of approach has been employed by others- by Y. Centeno, S. Reckert, et al. The result is that his readings of poems resemble more closely contextualized explications of the text than they do the sort of new critical readings once advocated by, say, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren in their enormously influential textbook Understanding Poetry.

But there is evidence that Mensagem does not deliver, in any sincerely straight-forward way, this clear-cut patriotic message of hope and national destiny. One suspects that Pessoa, the scheming matter-builder of a new-yet-old myth for his once and future Portugal, would not have wanted it any other way -the S. The third presents his critical conclusions.

University of Detroit, Mercy. Susan Nagel convincingly shifts the discussion of Spanish vanguard fiction from an aesthetics of dehumanization to one informed by the novels of Jean Giraudoux. Known primarily as a dramatist, a career that succeeded his years as a novelist, Giraudoux's importance to Hispanic vanguard fiction has been overlooked in recent criticism of the genre, although it was recognized by the authors themselves in the s and s.

Nagel's study begins with a chapter on the novels of Jean Giraudoux that is particularly useful to the Hispanist who may be unfamiliar with the French author. The analyses are fine as far as they go, but in each case one feels that more could have been said, as Nagel limits her comments to the four Giraudoux techniques listed above and refers little to other work on three novels the bibliography has many lacunae. However significant Nagel's central thesis may be -that Giraudoux was more important to Hispanic vanguard fiction than Ortega's aesthetics of dehumanization-, her book is not without its flaws.

The approach limits itself entirely to Giraudoux's influence, which deceptively narrows a rich and diverse aesthetic movement in Hispanic letters. There are a few outright errors, such as the suggestion that the Generation of '98 looked to Paris for artistic nourishment in the same degree as the vanguardisms p. Drawbacks aside, Susan Nagel has made an important contribution to our understanding of the sources of Hispanic vanguard fiction, and her study should be required reading for anyone interested in the genre. As a United Press correspondent covering the Spanish Civil War, Bolloten began his painstaking, methodical, lifelong accumulation of primary documents, a vast collection underpinning a half century of dedicated research and analyses.

Although not a professional academician but a freelancer and private businessman, he was for three years a lecturer and director of research on the Spanish Civil War and revolution at Stanford University's Institute for Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Studies.

Payne indicates that Bolloten's legacy to Stanford's Hoover Institution contains 2, imprints including many rare items , 12, bound newspapers from the Civil War era, ten large scrapbooks, some , frames of microfilm, nearly seventy boxes of manuscripts and large crates of assorted documents -one of the world's two or three single most important sources for investigations of Spain's civil conflict. Following some two decades of neglect of Spanish domestic politics by international historians and simultaneous pro-Francoist mythologization of events by Nationalists, scholars abroad began to place Spain's conflict in more accurate historical perspective.

The first such study -and the only one to focus on revolutionary politics in the Republican zone- Bolloten's The Grand Camouflage London was completed in This pioneering account of events in Eastern Spain from July to April detailed the socioeconomic and political revolution of the Anarcho-Syndicalists, the POUM and revolutionary Socialists, and documented meticulously the growth of Communist power, the comparative immiseration of landless laborers, centrifugal micronationalism, internal polarization and the imitation of the worst foreign extremisms in Spanish guise.

The Spanish Revolution , an expanded second work, ended with the controversial events of May , providing more detailed and complete treatment of the political struggle during the war's first ten months. While the few accounts of war in Eastern Spain e. Building upon these earlier works, The Spanish Civil War covers the entire period , adding not only the complete political history of the Republican zone during the second part of the Civil War, but much new material on the growth of Communist power in the military, government and police during the remainder of and in The acknowledgments list more than private individuals, government officials, libraries, publishing houses, news agencies, military sources and university presses, while the bibliography comprises some 3, entries.

Not only does the index elucidate the governmental, political and military spheres but also realms as distinct as agriculture, utilities, health, supplies, public order, people's justice, conferences, the press national and international , transfer of valuables, and public assistance. No review of less than monographic length could begin to do justice to the wealth of materials assembled by Bolloten, the scope and inclusiveness of his treatment buttressed by nearly a hundred pages of explanatory notes in the smallest print available and a number of maps clarifying the changing war zones and extended stalemate , the detail amassed in his charting of the popular revolution unleashed by the military uprising of July and consequent dramatic reshaping of Republican politics designated as the Third Republic.

Blaming the struggle for hegemony among parties of the Left more than Franco for the Communist rise to power, Bolloten documents precisely how Spanish Communism absorbed or eliminated its opponents and came to control almost every phase of public life. It is this focus as well as the extension and depth which most differentiate his approach from standard references. Rather than narrowly viewing Spain's civil conflict as many have as a rehearsal for World War II, Bolloten anchors it firmly in 20th Century European history, helping to clarify not only the war's origins but the genesis of subsequent developments in the Franco and post-Franco eras.

The Spanish Civil War. Revolution and Counterrevolution will become the definitive source on the material it treats. It is inconceivable that anyone will study it in greater depth or ever feel the need to do so. University of Texas of the Permian Basin. Unlike its immediate predecessor, Joan L. The goals she sets are judicious but also modest in scope for she revisits and pushes at the boundaries of a well-travelled and familiar terrain. Calvi carries this premise to the next order. While this opposition is the spindle around which Calvi constructs the main argument of her study, she also explores the close association of communicative acts and the spatial configurations in which they occur often with tedious detail and at some expense to her primary focus.

Too thin for the uninitiated, the chapter adds nothing to the stock of information already available to the specialist for whom the bock is primarily intended. Chapter 2 offers a methodological framework derived from narratology, linguistic structuralism and communication theory. Citing Benveniste, James, Genette, Bakhtin, Austin and Blanchot, among others, Calvi strives to lay a solid foundation for the categories to which she will return in subsequent chapters: the centrality and foundations of dialogue in narrative, the situational and relational transactions of dialogue, the importance of extralinguistic cues gestural, kinesic and visual and the spatio-temporal coordinates in which dialogic sequences are inscribed.

The correlation of lieu to communication is convincingly foregrounded and buttressed by a typology of the spaces in which the characters move. Public spaces and group interactions are privileged, fostering a sociolect that is conventional and petty. Prevailing sexual and behavioral codes exacerbate a felt absence of communication which is expressly thematized by several characters. In chapter 4, Calvi analyzes Ritmo lento as a paradigm of failed communication by means of a series of dialectic oppositions that restate the linkage of space and communication, e.

Calvi draws briefly on G. Bachelard to round out a geometry of space symbolizing various gradations of communication that mark the protagonist's struggle to unravel the tangled skein of his thoughts. Verbal and extraverbal cues signal the proximity and interdependence of the two speakers whereby telling, seeing and hearing are simultaneous stimuli of invention. Again, Calvi devotes considerable attention to the novel's spaces -real, evoked or invented- and to the ways in which their physical, symbolic and spiritual properties impinge on the manner and matter of communication.

Jacobson's classic scheme is briefly highlighted, thereby adding his name to the impressive roster of scholars alluded to in Chapter 2. On balance, however, it is clear that the theoretical framework of this volume cannot be credited to these master theoreticians nor, indeed, to Calvi. Perhaps the most fitting designation of Calvi's role -Given the focus of her book- is that of medium through which the author's own voice rises and is heard.

Barnard College, Columbia University. The relatively small number of books written by Esther Tusquets has already generated an unusually prolific critical response. Her major works appeal to a wide variety of tastes: those who seek a feminist perspective, postmodern tendencies, or sociocultural reflections on contemporary Spanish life -to mention these of the most predominant themes- are not disappointed with her fiction. Given this context, it is surprising to learn that no full-length study on her works has been published until now.

The Sea of Becoming makes up for this deficiency with studies on all book-length works except La conejita Marcela , a book for children. Two articles focus on her first and best known novel. Kathleen M. Glenn presents the various functions of art in El mismo mar de todos los veranos and points out the various literary techniques which join art and the narrator's life. Stacey L.

Dolgin interprets the aesthetic of eroticism in Tusquets' second novel, El amor es un juego solitario : sexuality and fictional process intersect in their techniques of game-playing and liberating elements. A psychic identity joins the main characters who are different females in each piece, but who share the name of Sara ; autobiographical elements and repeated literary devices further link the females. By far the greatest attention is lavished on Para no volver : five different perspectives on this latest novel engage in a fascinating dialogue on Tusquets' evolving novelistic art.

Luis F. Two studies take the lines from the epigraph as a point of departure: for Catherine G. Only one article Mary S. Both the text and the quotations of this collection are in English, making the book completely accessible to the non-Spanish speaker. This feature may introduce Tusquets to a wider audience, encourage scholars to study her as a fine example of contemporary writing and hence to give her a rightful place in international letters as well as to incorporate her works in women's studies courses. This collection will be a valuable asset for anyone interested in exploring Tusquets' literary world in particular or in pinpointing some of the issues of concern in contemporary letters.

Since many of this author's themes tend to surface time and again, the reader will profit by all the material in these studies, which serve both as an excellent introduction and as a serious scholarly contribution to the study of Tusquets' literature. University of Kentucky. That position was, of course, previously occupied by Carlos Saura whose latest films have not earned the same positive critical commentary nor sparked the imagination of viewers. The publication of D'Lugo's fine interpretation of Saura is, therefore, opportune for it will provide expert and novice, Hispanist and film student alike a wonderful reading of Saura's career as auteur from the documentary Cuenca to his film on the life of San Juan de la Cruz, La noche oscura , a reading that firmly establishes Saura's preeminent position among Spanish film makers.

What D'Lugo labels the practice of seeing affords the twenty-one feature films of Saura that he studies with their constructive cohesiveness and marks Saura's particular way of responding to the demands of being both a fabulator of fictive narrative and commentator on the evolving nature of the context in which his films were produced.

By this D'Lugo means that in each of his movies there is someone who occupies the space of the spectator and whose onscreen performance of the role of fictive observer forces the real spectator to problematize, to question his or her own responses to the socio-cultural environment portrayed on the screen. By making the interrogation of the practice of seeing a significant practice of the hermeneutic activities of the spectator, Saura forces the spectator to question also the received cultural patterns that pervade his films, thus joining the filmically innovative and socially critical at the level of structural disposition rather than at that of context.

The Films of Carlos Saura traces the dialectics of seeing as it evolves in Saura's films. Each of its chapters, after an insightful introduction to the concept of the practice of seeing and a consideration of Saura's formative years, discusses several films in relation to the director's evolving way of thematizing and filming the practice of seeing. The Films of Carlos Saura is a meticulous work in which the analysis of each of the films is as thought-provoking as the general orientation that D'Lugo brings to his subject matter.

The book demonstrates D'Lugo's mastery of Saura's films, his familiarity with the large body of critical literature on those films, of the modern theoretical constructs he brings to bear in his well argued explication, and of socio-cultural milieu to which Saura's films respond.

It is a work that Hispanists -even those whose investigations only tangentially intersect contemporary Spanish culture- and all students of European cinema will have to read. Michigan State University. The final chapter concludes with a summary of Torrente's entire novelistic production and attempts to demonstrate how the works just analyzed epitomize the novelist's output. Loureiro also includes a fifteen-page bibliography. Indeed, Loureiro shows the complexity and richness of Torrente's novels.

Each analysis begins by applying the theories of seminal literary critics such as Burke, Frye, and Stanzel to illuminate the writer's production. He devotes a sub-chapter each to the inherent structural complexities of each novel, the problems of time, and the problems of space, while probing the self-commenting nature of the texts. Loureiro's work offers extensive explications of the multiple narrative segments composing each work, their chronology, and their interrelation in the novelistic construct.

A chart for Fragmentos would have helped. The book pays particular attention to the metafictional nature of the artist's works. Loureiro listens well to the voice of Torrente, the literary critic, who uses fiction to explore fiction. Much attention is focused on the theoretical aspect of Torrente's works, highlighting sources from Spanish and non-Spanish writers. He concurrently discusses Torrente's presentation of love, history, myth, and the function of humor. The defects are few. The copious footnotes, though helpful to fellow literary critics, at times irritate the reader.

For the newcomer to Torrente's works, information in the final chapter might be more useful at the beginning. Overall, Loureiro's book presents solid analyses, sorts out the tangled plot threads convincingly, and thus, makes an important contribution to scholarship on one of Spain's most acclaimed novelists. Estas actas publicadas son el fruto de un simposio, el primer encuentro literario entre los EE. En una ponencia bien interesante, Anderson Imbert estudia el punto de vista narrativo en La Araucana. Texas Christian University. Resultan conclusiones curiosas: los espacios exteriores manifiestan connotaciones negativas; los interiores, positivas.

Enfatiza, sobre todo, el papel de Salamanca y Madrid en el texto. University of New Hampshire. Texas A and I University. The entire series of dictionaries on the Hispanic world is currently being updated by Scarecrow Press. Consequently, Historical Dictionary of Costa Rica , now in its second edition and , has an increase of almost entries. Although the three-page introduction to the entries makes no note of criteria for inclusion, a perusal of the various items indicates that Creedman did privilege the field of history.

Yet the book, in no way confined to historical topics, serves as a cross section of Costa Rican culture: economics, music, political science, language, folklore, and literature. Supplemental information may be retrieved from the books listed in the thirty-five-page bibliography in the final section. And it is in the proportioning of space that this basic reference has problems. Even though a quick-reference, the dictionary needs some vertebrating entries. For example, each one of the above-mentioned disciplines deserves at least a page for the user who would like to maximize knowledge of Costa Rica based on this book.

For example, in a very brief essay, one could become aware of the major contours of Costa Rican literature from pre-Columbian times to the present. This orienting essay should then cross reference all of the items relevant to literature, i. The formula simultaneously lends unity and depth to what is by nature a fragmented endeavor. In spite of this defect in conception, the work fills a need for although Costa Rica may be one of many topics as in Countries of the World , apparently the Historical Dictionary is the only reference in English focusing on this country.

It can be hoped that Scarecrow Press will attempt an update each decade for this one-of-a-kind series. In a sense, there is not much new information here, although Orjuela offers fresh opinions on the available data. He has done a good job in recapitulating the known facts, as well as providing good historical, political and cultural background which helps us to understand better the tragic poet. With the death of his father in , Silva became head of the family business , which interfered with his poetic creativity.

On the death of Elvira, his beloved sister and inspiration, in , Silva obtained an embassy post in Caracas. On a trip home he was shipwrecked, lost many of his manuscripts, and never did return to Venezuela. Some attempt at a conclusion would have been useful, to summarize or clarify the shadowy aspects of Silva's tortured life. Despite the copious notes, one still needs a bibliography.

Queen's University. In that year, a contingent of Russian Jewish families arrived to establish an agricultural colonia on the pampas, the first sponsored by the Jewish Colonization Organization. The date is important because the movement of Eastern European Jews to Argentina created the first sizable, distinctly Jewish population in the country, unlike the hidden Sephardim colonial days and later, scattered Jewish immigration from Western Europe. The rife is slightly imprecise; the pioneers of understandably did not start out publishing. But titular exactitude aside, the anthology gives a needed historical perspective on Jewish Argentine writing, which can easily seem to consist only of Gerchunoff and the late 20th century writers who stand in contrast to this inescapable founder, today often perceived as servile in his accommodation of elite ideology.

It also deserves praise for including Argentine-born Israeli writers and some who crossed from Yiddish to Spanish language literature. The selections are ordered according to authors' dates of birth, a system that sometimes highlights and sometimes obscures a process of development. As Feierstein notes in his prologue, the first Jewish Argentine writings tend to be straightforward accounts of life in the colonias ; yet Gerchunoff's Gauchos , one of the early texts here, is an artful aesthetic and ideological construction posing as eyewitness. The writers who made their names in the s and the s tended to favor prose and a realistic approach; of these, Bernardo Verbitsky and Bernardo Kordon are included, but Max Dickmann, a Dos Passos-like innovator in Argentine narrative, is not, perhaps because he seldom treated the Jewish themes this anthology emphasizes.

Then, roughly half the volume is devoted to authors who are either living or recently deceased, including Humberto Costantini, Alicia Steimberg, Marcos Aguinis, and Gerardo Mario Goloboff. Some authors are represented by recent, atypical texts, such as occasional pieces written for Jewish-theme periodicals, rather than by writing from the era in which they made their impact. Every reader feels the urge to rework anthologies, maybe in this case to drop the literary chitchat of Bernardo Koremblit and edit the insightful but long-winded Arnoldo Liberman. No doubt force majeur , as permissions problems, influenced selection.

University of Texas at Austin. The first five chapters, which constitute Part One: Backgrounds, deal with the contemporary novel, Colombian geography and history, and the life, politics, and literary formation of the writer. Chapter 11 the last presents a useful survey of the Colombian author's influence outside of Latin America, particularly in the United States.

Both show a mastery of the texts as well as familiarity with the principal critical studies these works have elicited. Not included, except for brief remarks, is the novel, El general en su laberinto , no doubt due to the fact that its publication was coincidental with the writing of Bell-Villada's study. Readers familiar with his insightful Borges and His Fiction will find this latest critical study equally meritorious. It traces the major forces that have shaped the Colombian writer and skillfully integrates the writer's personality and politics with his artistic creations.

The analysis of his short fiction and its relation to the novels Chapter 7 is of particular merit. This reviewer found no errors of fact. One particularly valuable aspect of this study is the fact that it relates the Colombian writer to contemporary global literature and political currents. It is a study for the general reader as well as for the literary specialist. In the same tradition of great literature, it speaks to everyone regardless of the reader's level of sophistication or cultural awareness.

Texas Tech University. For students of the Ecuadorian novel in particular, Antonio Sacoto makes a similar contribution. He divides his study into a fourteen-page Prologue, a page First Part and a page Second Part.

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Outside the scope of these interested particularly in Ecuadorian letters, only the works of Mera, Icaza, Aguilera Malta and perhaps Ortiz have received major international attention. Of course, other Ecuadorian novelists have written works of prominence that are not treated by Sacoto. Apparently, they do not meet his criteria for primary consideration. For the most part, Sacoto gives the fourteen novels reasonably equal attention. He presents thoroughly the socio-political milieu, gives the appropriate recapitulation of the plot, and makes an interested but objective analysis of each one.

Several aspects of his study are particularly noteworthy. Also, the Ecuadorian narrative has been generally characterized by a solemn social consciousness. Sacoto's study both underscores and illuminates that characteristic. He shows that Ecuadorian novelists often display through their work a posture of struggle against social injustice and a keen sense of the national historical process.

Levity is relatively rare. He observes that these writers were legitimate precursors of the magical realists. Indeed, Aguilera-Malta later became part of the mainstream with Siete lunas y siete serpientes and other later works. The Ecuadorian narrative still suffers somewhat from a general perception of being more oriented toward social concerns than artistic expression. Ultra-rightists from the Serbian Chetnik movement — the name has been used by nationalist groups at various times in the last years — had their own military subdivision, with their own traditional uniforms, droopy moustaches and beards, but they recently returned home, arguing that the separatists were gaining ground and no longer needed them.

The Russian and Serbian languages are closely related, so he can communicate with his fellow fighters in a mixture of Serbian and English. French volunteers in Donbass. Nikola Petrovic stands front row right. CC Rykov. There are also many Hungarians among the international volunteers, and this too is easy to explain. They both had empires and they both lost too much. However, not all the European volunteers are right-wingers.

Both Ukrainian and Russian leftists are meanwhile deeply divided about Novorossiya. Some have been telling their European comrades that it is the Kyiv government that is fascist; others that it is the Donbas separatists. It would be rash to regard Novorossiya as an historical anomaly, a kind of Jurassic Park for hotheads and weird ideas. This phenomenon of international volunteers rushing to the Donbas, follows the twists and turns of the propaganda pumped out by the Kremlin for global consumption; and which is widely reflected in Western media.

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