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Infraorbital a. Angular v. Posterior superior alveolar a. Buccal a. Masseteric a. Superior labial a. Inferior labial a. Facial a. Submental a. Lingual a. Superior laryngeal a. Superior thyroid aa. Middle thyroid v. Transverse cervical v. Dorsal scapular v. Subclavian a. Cephalic v. Parietal pleura Right internal thoracic a. Right brachiocephalic v.

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Brachiocephalic trunk Left common carotid a. Superior vena cava Pericardium Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary a. Right lung Right atrium and auricle Left auricle Left pulmonary vv. Right coronary a. Anterior interventricular a. Diaphragm Hepatic vv. Inferior vena cava Inferior phrenic aa.

Superior suprarenal aa. Right suprarenal gland Middle and inferior suprarenal aa. Right kidney Testicular aa. Ascending lumbar v. Common iliac aa. Anterior superior iliac spine Iliacus muscle. Radial recurrent a. Anterior ulnar recurrent a. Posterior ulnar recurrent a. Common interosseous a. Inferior gluteal a. Medial circumflex femoral a. Lateral circumflex femoral a.

Descending br. Sciatic n. Descending genicular a. Saphenous br. Medial superior genicular a. Great saphenous v. Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch 1st perforating a. Deep femoral a. Anterior medial malleolar a. Anterior lateral malleolar a. Lateral tarsal a. Lateral plantar a. Medial tarsal a. Medial plantar a. Arcuate a. Deep plantar a. Anterior interosseous a.

Ulnar a. Median n. Interosseous membrane Radial a. Deep palmar br. Superficial palmar br. Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch. Iliolumbar a. Internal iliac a. Deep circumflex iliac a. Superior vesicle a. Urinary bladder Cremasteric a. Obturator a. Left renal a. Quadratus lumborum muscle 4th lumbar a. Middle sacral a. Superior gluteal a. External iliac a.

Inguinal ligament Inferior epigastric a. Superficial circumflex iliac a. External pudendal aa. Internal pudendal a. Deep dorsal v. Changing or reshaping the eyebrow, adding a highlighter or shadow in the right place, can give off different emotional signals. Facial muscles are formed in four different groups: scalp and facial muscles, eye and eye socket muscles, mouth muscles, and jaw muscles. Enjoyment Figure 2. The zygomatic major curves the mouth, and the orbicularis oculi raises the cheeks. The cheeks, in turn, press the skin toward the eye, causing a squint. Eyes appear brighter.

Lips can be dry. In terror, nostrils dilate, pupils widen, and perspiration appears on the forehead. Surprise Figure 2. Surprise in nature began as a protective measure. We humans raise our eyebrows. Disgust Figure 2. The nose can turn up slightly and. Anger Figure 2. Eyebrows appear downward, and the lips look pursed orbicularis oris muscle. When angry, the blood can rush to the face. A flushing of redness can occur. Fear Figure 2. Lips pull back buccinator muscle and even tremble. The next layer is the dermis, which contains blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands. Sadness Figure 2.

Wrinkles on the mid-forehead, eyebrows droop, and the corners of the mouth go down triangularis muscle. The skin Figure 2. The skin is made up of several layers. The outer layer is the epidermis, which protects us from disease and. Wounds and diseases also play a big part for the Makeup Artist. It becomes clear why it is important to study the human body. Having medical books of all kinds is a valuable tool for research. Not only should you know the medical explanation of wounds or diseases, but also the scene or environment that caused the wound or disease in the first place. With that knowledge, you can then decide what products you will use and how to execute a realistic makeup.

The following touches on only a few examples of wounds and diseases that involve anatomy and the Makeup Artist. Shock: A term used for tissue and organ failure. There are three forms of shock. All have three stages. Stage One symptoms include cold, pale skin, and rapid heartbeat. Stage Two symptoms include weak pulse and cold, clammy skin. Stage Three is unconsciousness, shallow breathing, and rapid falling of blood pressure.

Disease: Can be caused by a number of things: age, gender, infection, smoking, drugs, to name a few. There are times that a disease has no known cause. When you have a change of metabolism or cell changes, symptoms can occur that, in turn, make a person aware that a disease is present. Most often a disease goes through. Those stages start with exposure to a disease and end with remission or full recovery. Allergies: Can be caused by airborne irritants. Symptoms can include sneezing, watery eyes, itchy throat, headaches, sore red eyes, runny nose, and dark circles under the eyes.

Anthrax: A bacterial infection. Inhalation anthrax symptoms are fever and nausea with flu-like symptoms. Breathing can be difficult. Intestinal anthrax symptoms are fever, nausea, decreased appetite, and abdominal pain. Cutaneous anthrax is characterized by small, elevated, itchy lesions. Using an airbrush works well for many of the following situations because you will have less contact with the surface of the skin.

It also reduces the amount of rubbing and blending that can irritate already sensitive skin. Bradley Look will explain how to address the following skin disorders: Port-Wine Stain Nevus Flammeus : Flat, irregular red to purple patches. Starts out as a smooth surface, but can become an uneven, bumpy texture. Most often will darken with age. Bradley Look: To camouflage port-wine stains, mix a mint green adjuster into a base color.

Lightly haze the area, letting the edge trail off. Let this dry before covering the affected area and the surrounding skin with foundation. Psoriasis: An ongoing disease with periods of remission. Dry, flaky scales or thickened skin around lesions can be itchy and painful. Bradley Look: To camouflage psoriasis, stipple a light layer of rubber mask grease over the affected area. Lightly powder to set. Using an airbrush, lightly cover the area with several light passes of airbrush product.

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Since psoriasis is notably seen only on the elbows and knees, additional body makeup might be required using the same technique if the condition is visible elsewhere on the talent. Rosacea: Common among people with a Celtic background. Rosacea has a butterfly-like redness over the nose and cheek area. People most often mistake rosacea for acne. Bradley Look: To camouflage rosacea, use a similar technique to the one outlined for port-wine stain. Scars: Usually thick and pink with a smooth texture.

Over time, scars should fade to a very pale white. Scars are broken down into two types: indented or protruding. Bradley Look: For the indented scar, using a tattoo palette, apply a highlight slightly paler than the skin tone around the edge of the scar. Next, around the area of highlight, apply slightly darker tone than the skin color. By the creative use of highlights and shadow, you are attempting to make the scar appear less indented.

Afterward, spray over with appropriate. For a protruding scar, apply tattoo palette colors in the exact opposite order as listed above. Shadow is applied to the edge of the scar and blended outward. Foundation is then airbrushed over the entire area. Note: A hypertrophy scar can be toned down using makeup; the 3-D dimension is still quite visible if not properly lit.

Vitiligo: Complete loss of pigment over time. There is often a splotchy look to the skin. In fair skin, you might not notice it as much, but it is disfiguring to darker skin tones. Bradley Look: To camouflage vitiligo, airbrush a medium flesh tone over the area. Next, lightly airbrush the foundation color over the affected area and the rest of the face.


Conjunctivitis: Bacterial infection of the eyes. Symptoms are pain, tearing, and redness with fluid discharge of the eyes. A cough can also be present. Tetanus: Bacterial infection caused by open cuts and wounds having contact with infected soils, dust, and other agents that cause local infection at the site of the wound. Unchecked, the infection will enter the bloodstream, causing painful, deepmuscle spasms. Pneumonia: Bacterial infection.

Pneumonia is the most dangerous to the very young or the elderly. Coughing, fever, chills, deep chest pain, wheezing, and fatigue are some of the most common symptoms you would expect to see. Herpes Zoster: Viral infection. Symptoms are small, painful red skin lesions that develop along the nerve path. Mumps: Viral disease characterized by swelling and tender parotid gland and salivary glands. Meningitis: Bacterial infection of the meninges, which are the delicate membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms can include fever, severe headache, stiff neck and shoulders, a dark red or purplish rash anywhere on the body, mental confusion, vomiting, and sensitivity to bright light.

Leukemia: Blood disorder. No one knows the cause of this disease, although genetics, environment, or the immune system might play a part. Symptoms include paleness, high fever, abnormal bleeding, and weight loss. As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe, including infections, organ enlargement, and tender bones. Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection in which bacilli are deposited into the lungs. Symptoms are fatigue, weight loss, night. Smallpox: Viral disease.

A rash forms on the face, spreading to the trunk of the body. Lesions form inside the mouth and nose. Chicken Pox: Viral disease. A small rash forms that turns into papules. Frostbite: Freezing of body parts, mostly nose, fingers, and toes. Frostbite has three different stages. First stage is pain with itching, maybe swelling. Second stage has blisters that can turn black. Heat Exhaustion: Occurs when someone has been exposed to heat for long lengths of time. There is also a loss of fluids. Symptoms include being tired, nausea with vomiting, sweating, and headache.

Heatstroke: Elevated body temperature. Symptoms include red skin, no sweating, elevated body temperature, difficulty breathing, confusion, seizure, and possible coma. The following terms outline only a few of the examples found in the skeletal, muscular, and circulatory systems. The Skeletal System The skeleton is divided into two different areas. The axial is made up of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs.

The appendicular skeleton is made up of the upper and lower extremities. The skull is divided into cranial bones. These bones form the cranial cavity. The cranial cavity houses the brain and facial bones, which, in turn, form the face. The Skull Frontal Bone: Bone located at the forehead.

Helps define the orbits of the eye. Mandible: The lower jawbone. Maxillae: The upper jawbones. Nasal Bones: There are two nasal bones. The vomer bone separates the nasal cavities. Occipital Bone: Large bone that makes up the base of the cranium. Zygomatic Arch: Bone that defines the cheekbone. Spinal Column The spinal column is made up of 26 bones.

The bones protect the spinal cord. The spinal cord is strong and flexible—allowing movement, supporting the head, and serving as the attachment for the ribs and muscles. Upper Body Clavicle: Collarbone. Scapula: Along with the humerus, helps to form the shoulder joint. The Muscular System Muscles are described by size, shape, origin, and function. There are over known muscles in the body. Humerus: Upper arm bone. Radius: One of two lower arm bones. The radius is narrow at the end that connects with the humerus, and wider at the joints it forms with the wrist bones.

Mouth Muscles Buccinator: Draws the corners of the mouth backward, flattens and tightens the lips. Lower Body Pelvic Bone: Attaches the lower body to the axial skeleton. Femur: Thighbone. It is the strongest bone in the body. Patella: Kneecap. Tibia: The larger of the two bones that form the lower leg bone. Fibula: The smaller of the two bones that form the lower leg bone. Tarsals: Anklebones.

Metatarsals: Foot bones. Phalanges: Toes. Caninus: Raises the corner of the mouth.

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Mentalis: Raises and tightens the chin, thrusts the lower lip up and outward. Orbicularis Oris: Circles the mouth and purses the lips. Risorius: Pulls the corner of the mouth sideward and outward. Triangularis: Pulls the corner of the mouth downward. Zygomaticus Major and Minor: Muscles that raise the mouth upward and outward.

Eye Muscles Corrugator: Assists the orbicularis muscles in compressing skin between the eyebrows. Vertical wrinkles form. Orbicularis Oculi: Closes the eyelids and compresses the opening of the eye from above and below. Procerus: Tightens the inner eye by wrinkling the skin on the nose. Face Muscle Frontalis Frontal Part : Draws the scalp to the front, wrinkles the forehead, and pulls the eyebrows upward. Platysma: Neck muscle that draws the lower lip downward and upward. Circulatory System and Veins The circulatory system is made up of two different systems. In the pulmonary system, the right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body and pumps it to the lungs.

In the systemic system, the left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the rest of the body. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the tissues and organs. Veins return the blood to the heart. Arteries Aorta: Largest artery in the body. Coronary Arteries: Supply blood to the heart. Left Carotid and Left Subclavian Arteries: Provide blood to the left side of the head, neck, and upper limbs. Left and Right Common Iliac Arteries: The abdominal aorta divides into left and right common iliac arteries. Veins Superior Vena Cava: Receives blood from the upper body by way of the internal jugular, subclavian, and brachiocephalic veins.

Internal Jugular: Receives blood from the head and neck area, including the brain. Subclavian: Empties blood from the shoulder area. Brachiocephalic: One of two veins that form the superior vena cava. Inferior Vena Cava: Receives blood from the pelvis, abdomen, and lower limbs. Portal System: A set of veins that deplete blood from the intestines and the supporting organs. Hepatic Portal Vein: Vein that leads from the intestinal veins to the liver. Splenic Vein: Vein leaving the spleen. Superior Mesenteric: Blood returns to circulation through this vein by way of the small intestine.

It is hard to constantly memorize and remember every bone and muscle in the body, not even counting the vascular system. But even learning the basics and having those references to remind you of the correct placement of bones and muscles is important. Lesson One: The Skeletal System 1. Find an unlabeled drawing, photo, or chart of the skeletal system. Make a copy of the unlabeled skeletal system for yourself to write on. List the bones correctly on your copy of the unlabeled chart, checking your answers from the labeled skeletal system chart in Figure 2. You need to list only the basic bone structures: skull, neck, shoulders, arms, chest, wrist, fingers, legs, ankles, feet, toes, and so on.

Lesson Two: The Facial Bones 1. Find an unlabeled drawing, photo, or chart of the facial bone structure. Make a copy of the unlabeled facial bone structure for yourself to write on. List the basic facial bone structures on your copy of the unlabeled chart, checking your answers using the labeled facial charts in Figures 2.

Lesson Three: Facial Muscles 1. Find three or four photos of interesting faces with lots of different expressions. Lesson Four: Body Wounds This lesson can be done over time to get what you want. Using a camera, take pictures of several different types of wounds. You can also use several photographs found in magazines or medical books. Observe up close what the shapes, sizes, colors, and textures are for each wound. Write down where the wound is located on the body, using the correct medical terms to describe the location.

For example: The scratches are located on the epidermis in the torso area, and so on. The idea of this lesson is for you to start looking at wounds or illnesses in terms of colors, shapes, and textures instead of by what you think you already know. Starting a book for future reference is always a good idea. At the end of one year, review your book. Alcamo, I. Anatomy Coloring Workbook I, second edition. New York: Princetonreview Inc.

Contributers Cheryl A. Bean, Peggy Bozarth, Yvette P. Edmisson, William F. Galvin, Deborah A. Leal, Dawna Martich, E. Ann Myers, Sundaram V. Ramanan, Barbara L. Atlas of Pathophysiology. Second Edition. Anatomy For The Artist. DiMaio, Vincent J. Habif, Thomas P. Clinical Dermatology, third edition.

Look, Bradley. How to Cover Facial Disorders. McNeill, Daniel, The Face. Heat exhaustion. Moses, Kenneth P. Banks, Pedro B. Nava, and Darrell Peterson, Atlas of Clinical Gross Anatomy. The basics of color are essential for you, as a professional Makeup Artist, to know and understand. You will use this knowledge in every makeup you do. There will be countless times when color issues come up that you will have to be able to problem solve. You cannot problem solve unless you understand color and its functions. The wrong color choice can change everything about what you as an artist are trying to say with makeup.

Color understanding is used to create mood, to enhance skin tone and character design, and to correct environmental issues such as lighting and mixing of pigments. Artists can—and often do—select many palettes, whether in blues or earth colors, for example. But if you are trying to mix colors and get the widest range, you want the three primary colors that allow you to do that.

In the subtractive process, those colors are cyan, magenta, and yellow. The purer each of these is in terms of color, the wider the range of colors you can mix.

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This includes the Makeup Artist who mixes pigments for a variety of surfaces and skin tones. Mixing pigments to create Pax Paint is an example of Makeup Artists using paint color in their work. Pax Paint is a combination of Pros-Aide adhesive that is mixed with acrylic paints to be used on a variety of surfaces in which there is a strong bond of color that will not lift or flake off. All aspects of makeup—foundations color-correcting skin tones, lip tones,. It is always a good idea to study color theory in detail, as it is an interesting and complex field.

Any a rtist who wishes to mix dark colors without black pigments can use the RCW. You could also use this color wheel to match, darken, or lighten skin tones and to find the complement colors to existing colors—for example, accents to eye shadows and lipstick colors. A color wheel in this true form gives the artist a tool to create different hues and to shade them to neutral darks.

The Makeup Artist would take this one step further by considering what colors also would work under different conditions: lights, color corrections, color grading, and so forth. The following will give you the basic language used to decipher the blending of hues. To begin to understand how to use the color wheel, it is important to know where to start. On the RCW, the colors on the outside of the wheel are pure hues.

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  7. What you can add to alter these colors is a tint with white, a tone with white and the complement color, or a shade with just the complement color. This will determine the final outcome of that color, including the addition of analogous relationships next to each other on the wheel. Always start matching or plotting a pure color from the outside of the color wheel—this is the pure hue. Finding the correct color or area of color, you can decide where to go from there.

    For example, if you want to find the complement of the color that you have already plotted, go to the opposite side of the color wheel. You will know the color will work. You can then tint, tone, or shade that hue to get the desired effect.

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    Hue: Any color. Primary Color Figure 3. They can be mixed together to make all other colors. Transparent Magenta is PR Transparent Cyan is PB Secondary Colors Figure 3. Red: Made by mixing yellow and magenta. Blue: A combination of magenta and cyan. Green: A mixture of cyan and yellow.

    Tints Figure 3. Dual Tone: A pigment that changes hue from mass tone to top tone. In other words, a color that changes as it gets lighter—not just in value, but in its actual color. For example, a brown color that changes to a bright yellow color is a dual tone. Purple that changes from a cool dark to a warm light is a dual tone. Top Tone: Adding white to a color. Mass Tone: Color right out of the tube or pure powder pigment.

    Undertone: Adding clear media Transparent: Dyes are clear—you can see through transparent dyes. Translucent: Milk is translucent—it can never be transparent by adding a clear medium. Opaque: Dense, like a small rock—it cannot be seen through. Classic color schemes will help you to decipher which way to plot a color on the color wheel. Monochromatic Figure 3. Analogous Figure 3. Complementary Figure 3. Triadic: Any three colors that are degrees apart on the wheel, usually primary colors. Split complementary colors are formed like a Y on the color wheel—one color on each side of a complementary color.

    Opposition, or complementary, pigments make neutral darks. If you mix two opposite pigments, the color will result in a darker hue. This enables the Makeup Artist to work with darker pigments without using black. It is also a great way to mix pre-existing makeup when you want to form a darker shade. Because the pigments complement each other, there will be a natural look to your work. The darker pigments will not clash against the skin tone of the person you are working on. The following outlines the six opposition colors and the neutral darks they will generate. Blue Figure 3.

    Notice that yellow darkens to brown. Brown and ultramarine make the neutral dark. Cyan is also called Thalo Blue. Green Oxide Opaque is a dark. The chart in Figure 3. The chart will also show you how to mix pigments that will give you cool browns or warm browns. Brown neutral tones in. For natural-looking makeup, a variety of neutral browns flatters and registers well for the camera. Highlighting and contouring with neutral browns has a less harsh effect. In situations where browns register darker on film, staying with neutral browns avoids having your brown registering too dark and unflattering.

    Remember that what you decide to use is the outcome of the problem solving for the makeup situation you have at the time. What is the skin tone? What is the lighting situation? Is this a makeup special effect? What medium is it? Are you working in theatre, film, television, HDTV, or print? Whatever the situation, knowing what pigments make brown is a plus. Colors from yellow to red all darken to brown, either by adding brown or by mixing brown.

    All skin colors have a range of 10 tints and 10 darks for each of the seven colors. To make a skin tone lighter, you will take the color already plotted and lighten it with white or yellow. To make a skin tone darker, you will take the color already plotted and darken with browns and the complement color. The Makeup Artist can also change existing foundations or mix your own by using the color wheel.

    Usages and combinations of color greatly affect your final makeup application Figure 3. You will also need to address the undertones in the skin, eyes, and lips. Color can balance, conceal, correct, or show emotion. Example: If there is too much red in the face, you can apply a green or yellow under or over the foundation to neutralize the red. You need to understand how colors function in relation to makeup artistry. Red is one of the secondary colors. Magenta is a primary color. The complementary color to red is cyan. Red is made by mixing yellow and magenta.

    A cool cherry red RCW Orange red will give a healthy glow to golden skin. Red is also used in makeup effects to show sun damage, alcohol abuse, windburn, crying, skin lesions and rashes, bruising and trauma to the skin, and to neutralize any gray undertones in appliances, and tattoo cover-up. Blue is a secondary color. The complement to blue is yellow. Cyan is a primary color. Blue is a combination of magenta and cyan. Blue will work with most skin tones. Blue can be used in makeup to portray illness, death, cold, and freezing, as well as bruising of the skin.

    Warm greens with yellow added look good on golden tones, or golden skin tones. Cool greens with cyan or blue added look good on cool tones, or skin with cool undertones. Green is also used in bruising and to portray illness, cold, or rotting. Green is also used to cover tattoos. Orange is a warm color that is between yellow and red on the RCW. Orange is a vibrant color that can be used as a highlighter on warm and dark skin tones.

    Orange is a good color to use for masking out blue, as in beard stubble and covering tattoos. Orange also will neutralize blue undertones or blue lighting in dark skin tones. Yellow is a primary color. The complementary color to yellow is blue. Yellow is used to add warmth to other colors.

    Yellow browns gold in eye shadows, blushers, and lipsticks flatter golden skin tones. In makeup, yellow can be use to portray illness, weakness, rotting, and bruising. Violet RCW 14 is the color between purple and magenta. Violet is a cool color. The complementary color to violet is chartreuse. Violet is used to correct too much yellow or shallowness in skin tone. Most cool skin tones look good in the color violet.

    In makeup, violet and combinations of violet are used for bruising, wounds, freezing, and death. Green is a secondary color. Green is a combination of cyan and yellow. The complement color to green is magenta. Green can be cool blue green or warm yellow green. In makeup, green is used to.

    Pink is red with tint white added. There is a warm pink, which is a light red, and a cool pink, which is magenta. Pink is flattering to most skin tones. Magenta pink is good on cool skin tones. Warm pink. In makeup, pink is used in eye shadows, lipsticks, and blushers to show good health.

    Black is often used to darken another color and make a shade of that color. Shading colors can also be made by mixing opposite colors together. Black mixed with white makes a neutral gray. Cool, darker skin tones tend to look good in black. In makeup, black is used in eye shadows, eyeliners, brow color, and mascara. Black can be used to add drama or depth to existing colors. White is added to other colors to make tints. In makeup, white or off-white can be used as highlighters, or to make darker colors stand out.

    Cool, darker skin tones tend to look good in white. Color is one of the most important things to have a good understanding about. The more you use what you read, the easier using color becomes. Whether you use a traditional color wheel or the Real Color Wheel is up to you. The lessons address using the different primary colors, but the knowledge can also be used for moretraditional ways of color mixing. Just think of these color lessons as a way to mix to get even more color choices. Lesson One: The Color Wheel 1. Using artist paper and a pencil, draw a Real Color Wheel.

    Be sure to use the correct dimensions and straight. Use the RCW in Figure 3. Paint in the correct colors on your wheel. After you are done painting, number and name the wheel. Draw three simple contour drawings of an object or face. Pick three of the opposition colors in Figure 3. Use the colors separately and mixed together to create neutral darks. Use the example from Lesson Two, but instead follow the brown pigment chart Figure 3. On artist paper, create several skin tones by using pigments that have been tinted or darkened accordingly.

    Remember to use all the ranges of color from 1 yellow to 7 red. Darken these colors to brown by mixing your browns. When you come up with skin tones you like, write down, next to the color, the exact combination you used. This is a way to keep records for future use. Lighting can be one of the most important tools for a Makeup Artist. It is always a good idea to know what type of lights are being applied and the kind of gels or filters that will be used in front of the lights or the camera lens. Makeup is often adjusted to meet those demands.

    Most often, if you have designed your makeup with the lighting in mind, your artistry will be enhanced by it. If you ignore the effects that lighting and color have on your makeup application, the mistakes will be obvious for all to see. It all works together and takes years to really learn, but you will get invaluable practical experience with each job.

    Eventually, you will recognize what colors work with the lighting situations you are in, and the more information you know about lighting, filters, and gels, the better the outcome. Of course in some jobs, you will not get the chance to ask any questions. Be observant, watch the lighting crew and camera, and ask questions when they are not busy. Most people are very happy to explain their job or situation to you. Is it a film, video, HDTV, or stage production?

    You should know whether you are filming indoors or outside, day or night, and what lights, filters, and gels are planned. There are so many factors, and the more you know, the better off you are. Remember, this is not a perfect world— there will be many, many times that information is not available. So know your. Joseph N. On some productions, this will be accommodated, but it depends on the project, prep time, and—very important—the money. Lighting packages can be expensive, and so are those lightbulbs. Hue, value, and chroma are terms from the Munsell system of color notation published in It is a system designed for explaining color in ink and paint rather than color in light.

    However, the three descriptive terms are used to define the color of light, contributing more to the confusion than to the clarity of the subject. The vocabulary of color is a minefield of contradictions and confused meanings. Colorimetry is another system for describing color, and is of particular interest because it relates well to colored light. In colorimetry, the following terms are used to describe the color of light: Dominate Wavelength DWL : The apparent color of the light.

    Similar to the term hue, meaning the apparent color e. Brightness: The percentage of transmission of the full spectrum of energy similar to value. Often described as intensity. Purity: The purity of color is similar to chroma. It describes the mixture of color of the DWL with white or the color of the source. If there is only color of the DWL, it is percent pure; but if there is very little DWL in the mixture, as in a tint, the color could be as low as, say, 5 percent pure.

    White: The presence of all colors in the light. Black: Absence of all colors. Texture: The surface properties of a color, as in shiny or matte, reflective or diffusing. Throw in a fierce and violent rivalry with the neighbouring town, a twelve foot tall aeroplane pilot and a badger in a suit and you have the recipe for the funniest book ever written. A powerful tale of murder, kidnapping, revenge, midgets and lettuce. What more could you want? A plot? Well, you can't have everything Create Widget. Also by Mark Jackman. Report this book. Reason for report: — Select a reason — Book is or contains spam Book infringes copyright Same content is published elsewhere with different author for ex.